Research Article
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Investigation of Cognitive, Psychological and Physical Factors Affecting Academic Performance of University Students by Principal Component Analysis During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Year 2022, Volume 13, Issue 3, 385 - 393, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.31067/acusaglik.1091095

Abstract

Purpose: The Covid-19 Pandemic has significantly affected the physical activity levels, psychosocial status, cognitive skills, and academic performances of university students in studying in health field. The aim of this study is to examine the factors affecting the academic performance of university students with principal component analysis. Methods: 151 University students (aged 21.83±1.88 years; 125 female, 26 male) participated in the study. The CogniFit Cognitive Assessment Program, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory were administered to the students via the Google Form. The Principal Component Analysis was used to evaluate the data. Results: The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) yielded three principal components (PC) that together account for 93% of the variation in the data set and represent new and distinct patterns. Thus, 11 variables affecting the subject were reduced to three components. These 3 components include all the cognitive functions evaluated. In addition, sleep and depression variables are also included. Conclusion: The cognitive, emotional, and physical factors affecting the academic performance of university students have been systematically classified and made easier to prioritize and understand. In this way, the parameters that need improvement were laid out.

References

  • 1. Donnelly JE, Hillman CH, Castelli D, Etnier JL, Lee S, Tomporowski P, et al. Physical activity, fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children: a systematic review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016; 48: 1223-4.
  • 2. Erickson KI, Hillman C, Stillman CM, Ballard RM, Bloodgood B, Conroy DE, et al. Physical activity, cognition, and brain outcomes: a review of the 2018 physical activity guidelines. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019; 51: 1242-1251.
  • 3. López-Valenciano A, Suárez-Iglesias D, Sanchez-Lastra MA, Ayán C. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on university students' physical activity levels: an early systematic review. Front Psychol. 2021; 15: 624567.
  • 4. Harutoglu H., Ozturk B. Effect of Exercise on Cognitive Function. Turkiye Klinikleri J Physiother Rehabil-Special Topics 2016; 2: 117-21
  • 5. Yaneva A, Massaldjieva R, Mateva N. Initial Adaptation of the General Cognitive Assessment Battery by Cognifit™ for Bulgarian Older Adults. Exp Aging Res. 2021; 3:1-15.
  • 6. Sanchez-Castañeda C, Luis-Ruiz S, Ramon-Krauel M, Lerin C, Sanchez C, Miró N, et al. Executive Function Training in Childhood Obesity: Food Choice, Quality of Life, and Brain Connectivity (TOuCH): A Randomized Control Trial Protocol. Front Pediatr. Front Pediatr. 2021; 24: 551869.
  • 7. Adıgüzel İ, Raika Durusoy Onmuş İ, Mandıracıoğlu A, Aslı Öcek Z. Adaptation of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) into Turkish: A validation and reliability study. Turk J Phys Med Rehabil. 2021; 25:175-186.
  • 8. Alemany-Arrebola I, Rojas-Ruiz G, Granda-Vera J, Mingorance-Estrada ÁC. Influence of COVID-19 on the perception of academic self-efficacy, state anxiety, and trait anxiety in college students. Front Psychol. 2020; 9: 570017.
  • 9. Zhang C, Zhang H, Zhao M, Li Z, Cook CE, Buysse DJ,et al. Reliability, validity, and factor structure of Pittsburgh sleep quality index in community-based centenarians. Front Psychiatry. 2020; 31:573530.
  • 10. Tayfur SN, Evrensel A. Investigation of the relationships between eating attitudes, body image and depression among Turkish university students. Riv Psichiatr. Mar-Apr 2020; 55: 90-97.
  • 11. Cag Y, Erdem H, Gormez A, Ankarali H, Hargreaves S, Ferreira-Coimbra J, et al. Anxiety among front-line health-care workers supporting patients with COVID-19: a global survey. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2021; 68: 90-96.
  • 12. Celik Y. How, Biostatistics and Modern Scientific Research with SPSS. Nobel Medical Bookstores. İstanbul 2017. ISBN 9786056240935. 264 p. 4th edition.
  • 13. Gustafsson L. Occupational therapy has gone online: What will remain beyond COVID-19? Aust Occup Ther J. 2020; 67:197-198.
  • 14. Akram M, Ghous M, Tariq I, Khan H, Paracha M, Hussain B. The Association Between Physical activity with Cognitive And Cardiovascular Deconditioning In Age Related Decline Of College Students. J Pak Med Assoc. 2018; 68: 1755-1758.
  • 15. Alhazmi A, Aziz F, Hawash MM. Association of BMI, Physical Activity with Academic Performance among Female Students of Health Colleges of King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021; 18: 10912.
  • 16. Li JW, O’Connor H, O’Dwyer N, Orr R. The effect of acute and chronic exercise on cognitive function and academic performance in adolescents: A systematic review. J Sci Med Sport. 2017; 20 :841-848.
  • 17. Heidari M, Borujeni MB, Borujeni MG, Shirvani M.Relationship of Lifestyle with Academic Achievement in Nursing Students. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017; 11: JC01-JC03.
  • 18. Cid FM, Muñoz HD. Physical exercise and academic performance. MOJ Sports Med. 2017; 1: 90–92.
  • 19. Quick V, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Shoff S, White AA, Lohse B, Horacek T, et al. Relationships of sleep duration with weight-related behaviors of US college students. Behav Sleep Med. 2016; 14: 565-580.
  • 20. Alalageri KM, Sobagaih RT. A cross sectional study to determine the sleep pattern and impact of sleep deprivation on the health and academics of medical students of BMCRI Bengaluru. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017; 4: 3731-3734.
  • 21. Tantawy AO, Tallawy HN, Farghaly HR, Farghaly WM, Hussein AS. Impact of nocturnal sleep deprivation on declarative memory retrieval in students at an orphanage: a psychoneuroradiological study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013; 9: 403–8.
  • 22. Akarsu R., Ozturk B., Yanik M., Mutlu O., Zengin D. . Assessment of Sleep Stress Level and Time Management in Final Year University Students. IJBCS. 2018; 7: 43-51.
  • 23. Torres-Martín C, Alemany-Arrebola I, Lorenzo-Martín ME, Mingorance-Estrada ÁC. Influence of COVID-19 on the Perception of Academic Self-Efficacy, State Anxiety, and Trait Anxiety in College Students. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021; 18: 8722.
  • 24. Demir M, Bucaktepe PGE, Taylan M, Yilmaz S, Kaya H, Coskunsel M, et al. The Association between Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and School Performance. Dicle Med J. 2016; 43: 146-150.
  • 25. Maheshwari G, Shaukat F. Impact of Poor Sleep Quality on the Academic Performance of Medical Students. Cureus. 2019; 11: e4357.
  • 26. Alemany-Arrebola I, Rojas-Ruiz G, Granda-Vera J, Mingorance-Estrada ÁC. Influence of COVID-19 on the Perception of Academic Self-Efficacy, State Anxiety, and Trait Anxiety in College Students. Front Psychol. 2020; 11: 570017.
  • 27. Gömleksiz M, Yakar B, Pirinçci E. Tıp Fakültesi Öğrencilerinin Sağlıklı Yaşam Biçimi Davranışları ve İlişkili Faktörler. Dicle Med J. 2020; 47: 347-358
  • 28. Berman AH, Bendtsen M, Molander O, Lindfors P, Lindner P, Granlund L, et al. Compliance with recommendations limiting COVID-19 contagion among university students in Sweden: associations with self-reported symptoms, mental health and academic self-efficacy. Scand J Public Health. 2022; 50: 70-84.
  • 29. Lin J, Guo T, Becker B, Yu Q, Chen ST, Brendon S, et al. Depression is Associated with Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity Among College Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Differs by Activity Level, Gender and Gender Role. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2020; 13:1123-1134.
  • 30. Son C, Hegde S, Smith A, Wang X, Sasangohar F. Effects of COVID-19 on College Students’ Mental Health in the United States: Interview Survey Study. J Med Internet Res. 2020; 22: e21279.

Year 2022, Volume 13, Issue 3, 385 - 393, 01.07.2022
https://doi.org/10.31067/acusaglik.1091095

Abstract

References

  • 1. Donnelly JE, Hillman CH, Castelli D, Etnier JL, Lee S, Tomporowski P, et al. Physical activity, fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children: a systematic review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016; 48: 1223-4.
  • 2. Erickson KI, Hillman C, Stillman CM, Ballard RM, Bloodgood B, Conroy DE, et al. Physical activity, cognition, and brain outcomes: a review of the 2018 physical activity guidelines. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019; 51: 1242-1251.
  • 3. López-Valenciano A, Suárez-Iglesias D, Sanchez-Lastra MA, Ayán C. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on university students' physical activity levels: an early systematic review. Front Psychol. 2021; 15: 624567.
  • 4. Harutoglu H., Ozturk B. Effect of Exercise on Cognitive Function. Turkiye Klinikleri J Physiother Rehabil-Special Topics 2016; 2: 117-21
  • 5. Yaneva A, Massaldjieva R, Mateva N. Initial Adaptation of the General Cognitive Assessment Battery by Cognifit™ for Bulgarian Older Adults. Exp Aging Res. 2021; 3:1-15.
  • 6. Sanchez-Castañeda C, Luis-Ruiz S, Ramon-Krauel M, Lerin C, Sanchez C, Miró N, et al. Executive Function Training in Childhood Obesity: Food Choice, Quality of Life, and Brain Connectivity (TOuCH): A Randomized Control Trial Protocol. Front Pediatr. Front Pediatr. 2021; 24: 551869.
  • 7. Adıgüzel İ, Raika Durusoy Onmuş İ, Mandıracıoğlu A, Aslı Öcek Z. Adaptation of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) into Turkish: A validation and reliability study. Turk J Phys Med Rehabil. 2021; 25:175-186.
  • 8. Alemany-Arrebola I, Rojas-Ruiz G, Granda-Vera J, Mingorance-Estrada ÁC. Influence of COVID-19 on the perception of academic self-efficacy, state anxiety, and trait anxiety in college students. Front Psychol. 2020; 9: 570017.
  • 9. Zhang C, Zhang H, Zhao M, Li Z, Cook CE, Buysse DJ,et al. Reliability, validity, and factor structure of Pittsburgh sleep quality index in community-based centenarians. Front Psychiatry. 2020; 31:573530.
  • 10. Tayfur SN, Evrensel A. Investigation of the relationships between eating attitudes, body image and depression among Turkish university students. Riv Psichiatr. Mar-Apr 2020; 55: 90-97.
  • 11. Cag Y, Erdem H, Gormez A, Ankarali H, Hargreaves S, Ferreira-Coimbra J, et al. Anxiety among front-line health-care workers supporting patients with COVID-19: a global survey. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2021; 68: 90-96.
  • 12. Celik Y. How, Biostatistics and Modern Scientific Research with SPSS. Nobel Medical Bookstores. İstanbul 2017. ISBN 9786056240935. 264 p. 4th edition.
  • 13. Gustafsson L. Occupational therapy has gone online: What will remain beyond COVID-19? Aust Occup Ther J. 2020; 67:197-198.
  • 14. Akram M, Ghous M, Tariq I, Khan H, Paracha M, Hussain B. The Association Between Physical activity with Cognitive And Cardiovascular Deconditioning In Age Related Decline Of College Students. J Pak Med Assoc. 2018; 68: 1755-1758.
  • 15. Alhazmi A, Aziz F, Hawash MM. Association of BMI, Physical Activity with Academic Performance among Female Students of Health Colleges of King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021; 18: 10912.
  • 16. Li JW, O’Connor H, O’Dwyer N, Orr R. The effect of acute and chronic exercise on cognitive function and academic performance in adolescents: A systematic review. J Sci Med Sport. 2017; 20 :841-848.
  • 17. Heidari M, Borujeni MB, Borujeni MG, Shirvani M.Relationship of Lifestyle with Academic Achievement in Nursing Students. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017; 11: JC01-JC03.
  • 18. Cid FM, Muñoz HD. Physical exercise and academic performance. MOJ Sports Med. 2017; 1: 90–92.
  • 19. Quick V, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Shoff S, White AA, Lohse B, Horacek T, et al. Relationships of sleep duration with weight-related behaviors of US college students. Behav Sleep Med. 2016; 14: 565-580.
  • 20. Alalageri KM, Sobagaih RT. A cross sectional study to determine the sleep pattern and impact of sleep deprivation on the health and academics of medical students of BMCRI Bengaluru. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017; 4: 3731-3734.
  • 21. Tantawy AO, Tallawy HN, Farghaly HR, Farghaly WM, Hussein AS. Impact of nocturnal sleep deprivation on declarative memory retrieval in students at an orphanage: a psychoneuroradiological study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013; 9: 403–8.
  • 22. Akarsu R., Ozturk B., Yanik M., Mutlu O., Zengin D. . Assessment of Sleep Stress Level and Time Management in Final Year University Students. IJBCS. 2018; 7: 43-51.
  • 23. Torres-Martín C, Alemany-Arrebola I, Lorenzo-Martín ME, Mingorance-Estrada ÁC. Influence of COVID-19 on the Perception of Academic Self-Efficacy, State Anxiety, and Trait Anxiety in College Students. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021; 18: 8722.
  • 24. Demir M, Bucaktepe PGE, Taylan M, Yilmaz S, Kaya H, Coskunsel M, et al. The Association between Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and School Performance. Dicle Med J. 2016; 43: 146-150.
  • 25. Maheshwari G, Shaukat F. Impact of Poor Sleep Quality on the Academic Performance of Medical Students. Cureus. 2019; 11: e4357.
  • 26. Alemany-Arrebola I, Rojas-Ruiz G, Granda-Vera J, Mingorance-Estrada ÁC. Influence of COVID-19 on the Perception of Academic Self-Efficacy, State Anxiety, and Trait Anxiety in College Students. Front Psychol. 2020; 11: 570017.
  • 27. Gömleksiz M, Yakar B, Pirinçci E. Tıp Fakültesi Öğrencilerinin Sağlıklı Yaşam Biçimi Davranışları ve İlişkili Faktörler. Dicle Med J. 2020; 47: 347-358
  • 28. Berman AH, Bendtsen M, Molander O, Lindfors P, Lindner P, Granlund L, et al. Compliance with recommendations limiting COVID-19 contagion among university students in Sweden: associations with self-reported symptoms, mental health and academic self-efficacy. Scand J Public Health. 2022; 50: 70-84.
  • 29. Lin J, Guo T, Becker B, Yu Q, Chen ST, Brendon S, et al. Depression is Associated with Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity Among College Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Differs by Activity Level, Gender and Gender Role. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2020; 13:1123-1134.
  • 30. Son C, Hegde S, Smith A, Wang X, Sasangohar F. Effects of COVID-19 on College Students’ Mental Health in the United States: Interview Survey Study. J Med Internet Res. 2020; 22: e21279.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Rehabilitation
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Başar ÖZTÜRK> (Primary Author)
BİRUNİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, FİZYOTERAPİ VE REHABİLİTASYON BÖLÜMÜ, FİZYOTERAPİ VE REHABİLİTASYON PR.
0000-0001-5763-6008
Türkiye


Begüm BÜYÜKERİK>
BIRUNI UNIVERSITY, VOCATIONAL SCHOOL, DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL SERVICES AND TECHNIQUES, PHYSIOTHERAPY PR.
0000-0002-8695-3640
Türkiye


Remziye AKARSU>
BIRUNI UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, DEPARTMENT OF ERGOTHERAPY, OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY PR.
0000-0002-1855-1623
Türkiye


Yusuf ÇELİK>
BİRUNİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-2849-4033
Türkiye

Publication Date July 1, 2022
Application Date March 22, 2022
Acceptance Date April 24, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 13, Issue 3

Cite

EndNote %0 Acıbadem Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi Investigation of Cognitive, Psychological and Physical Factors Affecting Academic Performance of University Students by Principal Component Analysis During the Covid-19 Pandemic %A Başar Öztürk , Begüm Büyükerik , Remziye Akarsu , Yusuf Çelik %T Investigation of Cognitive, Psychological and Physical Factors Affecting Academic Performance of University Students by Principal Component Analysis During the Covid-19 Pandemic %D 2022 %J Acıbadem Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi %P 1309-470X-1309-5994 %V 13 %N 3 %R doi: 10.31067/acusaglik.1091095 %U 10.31067/acusaglik.1091095