Research Article
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The Role of Basic Personality Traits, Cognitive Coping Strategies in Social Anxiety Symptoms

Year 2024, Volume: 15 Issue: 1, 31 - 38, 31.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.31067/acusaglik.1319964

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the role of personality traits and coping mechanisms in social anxiety symptoms within the scope of predisposing and sustaining risk factors.Methods: The study group consists of 505 participants (female are 52.3%) between the ages of 18-42 studying at different private universities in Istanbul. Data collection tools are Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Basic Personality Traits Scale, Ways of Coping with Stress Scale, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Scale. Results: Within the scope of the study, Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Hierarchical Regression Analysis are used. It is observed that participants with low and high social anxiety symptom level differed in terms of extraversion, agreeableness, openness and negative valence among personality traits; self-confident approach, helpless approach and submissive approach among stress coping styles; and refocusing on the plan, positive reappraisal and catastrophizing among cognitive emotion regulation styles. In addition, as a result of the hierarchical regression analysis, it is found that extraversion, openness and negative valence from personality traits; helpless approach and submissive approach from stress coping styles; and only positive refocusing sub-dimension from cognitive emotion regulation styles predicted social anxiety.
Conclusion: Results of this study supported the role of personality traits, ways of coping with stress and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in social anxiety symptoms. These data provide evidence that extraversion, openness to experience, negative valence personality traits; helpless and submissive stress coping styles might be both sustaining and predisposing risk factors in the conceptualization of social anxiety symptoms.

References

  • 1.American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association,2013.
  • 2.Alden LE, Taylor CT. Interpersonal processes in social phobia. Clin Psychol Rev, 2004:24; 857-882
  • 3.Baltacı Ö, Hamarta E. Analyzing the relationship between social anxiety, social support and problem solving approach of university students. Education & Science, 2013:38;226-240.
  • 4.Bienvenu OJ, Nestadt G, Samuels JF and et al. Phobic, panic, and major depressive disorders and the five-factor model of personality. J Nerv Ment Dis, 2001:189;154–161.
  • 5.Bienvenu OJ, Samuels JF, Costa PT, and et al. Anxiety and depressive disorders and the fivefactor model of personality: A higher‐and lower order personality trait investigation in a community sample. Depress Anxiety, 2004: 20; 92-99.
  • 6.Brouzos A, Vassilopoulos SP, Vlachioti A and et al. A coping‐oriented group intervention for students waiting to undergo secondary school transition: Effects on coping strategies, self‐esteem, and social anxiety symptoms. Psychol Sch, 2002:57(1);31–43.
  • 7.Carver CS and Connor-Smith J. Personality and coping. Annual Rev Psychol, 2010:61;679 704.
  • 8.Clark DM and Wells A.A. Cognitive model of social phobia. In: Social Phobia: Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment. New York:Guilford Press.1995:p 69–93.
  • 9. Costachel ME, Frick A, Månsson K and et al. Higher- and lower-order personality traits and cluster subtypes in social anxiety disorder. PLoS One,2020:29;15(4):e0232187.
  • 10.Dell’Osso L, Abelli M, Pini S and et al. Dimensional assessment of DSM-5 social anxiety symptoms among university students and its relationship with functional impairment. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 2014;10:1325–1332. 11. Findlay LG, Coplan RJ and Bowker A. Keeping it all inside: Shyness, internalizingcoping strategies and socio-emotional adjustment in middle childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2009:33(1);47-54.
  • 12. Garnefski N, Kraaij and Spinhoven P. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Pers Individ Dif, 2001;30(8):1311-1327.
  • 13. Gençöz T and Öncül Ö. Examination of personality characteristics in a turkish sample: Development of basic personality traits inventory. J Gen Psychol, 2012;139(3):194-216.
  • 14. Goldin PR, Manber T, Hakimi S and et al. Neural bases of social anxiety disorder: emotional reactivity and cognitive regulation during social and physical threat. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2009; 66(2):170-180.
  • 15.Kashdan TB, Steger M.Expanding the topography of social anxiety: An experience sampling assessment of positive emotions and events, and emotion suppression. Psychol Sci, 2016;17:120–128.
  • 16. Kotov R, Gamez W, Schmidt F and et al. Linking “big” personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull, 2010:136(5);768-791.
  • 17. Łakuta P. Personality Trait Interactions in Risk for and Protection against Social Anxiety Symptoms. J Psychol, 2019:153(6);599-614.
  • 18. Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Coping and adaptation. In W. D. Gentry (Ed.), The handbook of behavioral medicine,1984: (pp. 282-325). New York: Guilford
  • 19. McCrae RR and Costa JPT. Personality trait structure as a human universal. Am Psychol, 1997:52(5);509-611.
  • 20. Millon T, Kruege RF and Simonsen E. Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Scientific foundations of the DSM-5 and ICD-11. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2011.
  • 21. Mohammadi A, Abasi I, Soleimani M and et al.Cultural aspects of social anxiety disorder: A qualitative analysis of anxiety experiences and interpretation. Iranian J Psychiatry, 2019:14(1);33.
  • 22 Min JA, Yu JJ, Lee CU and et al. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies contributing to resilience in patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders. Compr Psychiatry, 2013:54(8);1190-1197.
  • 23. Norton GR, Cox BJ, Hewitt PL and et al. Personality factors associated with generalized and non-generalized social anxiety. Pers Individ Dif, 1997; 22(5):655-660.
  • 24. Nowruzi M, Michaeli F and Eisa ZA. Prevalence of social anxiety disorder among students of Urmia University. Urmia medical journal.2016; 27(2): 155-166.
  • 25. Onat O and Otrar M. Bilişsel duygu düzenleme ölçeğinin Türkçe’ye uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmaları. Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 2010; 31:123-143.
  • 26. Rukmini S, Sudhir P M and Math SB. Perfectionism, emotion regulation and their relationship to negative affect in patients with social phobia. Indian J Psychol Med 2014; 36(3):239-255.
  • 27.Soykan Ç, Özgüven HD and Gençöz T. Liebowitz social anxiety scale: The Turkish version. Psychol Rep. 2003; 93:1059-1069.
  • 28. Şahin N H and Durak A. Stresle başa çıkma tarzları ölçeği: Üniversite öğrencileri için uyarlanması. Turkish Journal of Psychology. 1995;10(34):56-73.
  • 29.Widiger TA and Costa PT. Five-factor model of personality disorder research. In P. T. Jr., Costa, & T. A., Widiger (Eds.), Personality Disorders and The Five-Factor Model of Personality (2nd ed., pp. 59–87), 2002: Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • 30.Wittchen HU and Fehm L. Epidemiology, patterns of comorbidity and associated disabilities of social phobia. Psychiatric Clinics, 2001;24(4): 617-641.
Year 2024, Volume: 15 Issue: 1, 31 - 38, 31.01.2024
https://doi.org/10.31067/acusaglik.1319964

Abstract

Thanks

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References

  • 1.American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association,2013.
  • 2.Alden LE, Taylor CT. Interpersonal processes in social phobia. Clin Psychol Rev, 2004:24; 857-882
  • 3.Baltacı Ö, Hamarta E. Analyzing the relationship between social anxiety, social support and problem solving approach of university students. Education & Science, 2013:38;226-240.
  • 4.Bienvenu OJ, Nestadt G, Samuels JF and et al. Phobic, panic, and major depressive disorders and the five-factor model of personality. J Nerv Ment Dis, 2001:189;154–161.
  • 5.Bienvenu OJ, Samuels JF, Costa PT, and et al. Anxiety and depressive disorders and the fivefactor model of personality: A higher‐and lower order personality trait investigation in a community sample. Depress Anxiety, 2004: 20; 92-99.
  • 6.Brouzos A, Vassilopoulos SP, Vlachioti A and et al. A coping‐oriented group intervention for students waiting to undergo secondary school transition: Effects on coping strategies, self‐esteem, and social anxiety symptoms. Psychol Sch, 2002:57(1);31–43.
  • 7.Carver CS and Connor-Smith J. Personality and coping. Annual Rev Psychol, 2010:61;679 704.
  • 8.Clark DM and Wells A.A. Cognitive model of social phobia. In: Social Phobia: Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment. New York:Guilford Press.1995:p 69–93.
  • 9. Costachel ME, Frick A, Månsson K and et al. Higher- and lower-order personality traits and cluster subtypes in social anxiety disorder. PLoS One,2020:29;15(4):e0232187.
  • 10.Dell’Osso L, Abelli M, Pini S and et al. Dimensional assessment of DSM-5 social anxiety symptoms among university students and its relationship with functional impairment. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 2014;10:1325–1332. 11. Findlay LG, Coplan RJ and Bowker A. Keeping it all inside: Shyness, internalizingcoping strategies and socio-emotional adjustment in middle childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2009:33(1);47-54.
  • 12. Garnefski N, Kraaij and Spinhoven P. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Pers Individ Dif, 2001;30(8):1311-1327.
  • 13. Gençöz T and Öncül Ö. Examination of personality characteristics in a turkish sample: Development of basic personality traits inventory. J Gen Psychol, 2012;139(3):194-216.
  • 14. Goldin PR, Manber T, Hakimi S and et al. Neural bases of social anxiety disorder: emotional reactivity and cognitive regulation during social and physical threat. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2009; 66(2):170-180.
  • 15.Kashdan TB, Steger M.Expanding the topography of social anxiety: An experience sampling assessment of positive emotions and events, and emotion suppression. Psychol Sci, 2016;17:120–128.
  • 16. Kotov R, Gamez W, Schmidt F and et al. Linking “big” personality traits to anxiety, depressive, and substance use disorders: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull, 2010:136(5);768-791.
  • 17. Łakuta P. Personality Trait Interactions in Risk for and Protection against Social Anxiety Symptoms. J Psychol, 2019:153(6);599-614.
  • 18. Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Coping and adaptation. In W. D. Gentry (Ed.), The handbook of behavioral medicine,1984: (pp. 282-325). New York: Guilford
  • 19. McCrae RR and Costa JPT. Personality trait structure as a human universal. Am Psychol, 1997:52(5);509-611.
  • 20. Millon T, Kruege RF and Simonsen E. Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Scientific foundations of the DSM-5 and ICD-11. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2011.
  • 21. Mohammadi A, Abasi I, Soleimani M and et al.Cultural aspects of social anxiety disorder: A qualitative analysis of anxiety experiences and interpretation. Iranian J Psychiatry, 2019:14(1);33.
  • 22 Min JA, Yu JJ, Lee CU and et al. Cognitive emotion regulation strategies contributing to resilience in patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders. Compr Psychiatry, 2013:54(8);1190-1197.
  • 23. Norton GR, Cox BJ, Hewitt PL and et al. Personality factors associated with generalized and non-generalized social anxiety. Pers Individ Dif, 1997; 22(5):655-660.
  • 24. Nowruzi M, Michaeli F and Eisa ZA. Prevalence of social anxiety disorder among students of Urmia University. Urmia medical journal.2016; 27(2): 155-166.
  • 25. Onat O and Otrar M. Bilişsel duygu düzenleme ölçeğinin Türkçe’ye uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmaları. Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 2010; 31:123-143.
  • 26. Rukmini S, Sudhir P M and Math SB. Perfectionism, emotion regulation and their relationship to negative affect in patients with social phobia. Indian J Psychol Med 2014; 36(3):239-255.
  • 27.Soykan Ç, Özgüven HD and Gençöz T. Liebowitz social anxiety scale: The Turkish version. Psychol Rep. 2003; 93:1059-1069.
  • 28. Şahin N H and Durak A. Stresle başa çıkma tarzları ölçeği: Üniversite öğrencileri için uyarlanması. Turkish Journal of Psychology. 1995;10(34):56-73.
  • 29.Widiger TA and Costa PT. Five-factor model of personality disorder research. In P. T. Jr., Costa, & T. A., Widiger (Eds.), Personality Disorders and The Five-Factor Model of Personality (2nd ed., pp. 59–87), 2002: Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • 30.Wittchen HU and Fehm L. Epidemiology, patterns of comorbidity and associated disabilities of social phobia. Psychiatric Clinics, 2001;24(4): 617-641.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Psychiatry
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Şebnem AKAN 0000-0002-9499-8961

Dilara BİRTEK 0000-0002-3864-7956

Publication Date January 31, 2024
Submission Date June 26, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2024Volume: 15 Issue: 1

Cite

EndNote AKAN Ş, BİRTEK D (January 1, 2024) The Role of Basic Personality Traits, Cognitive Coping Strategies in Social Anxiety Symptoms. Acıbadem Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi 15 1 31–38.