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Nutritional Habits of Males Who Participate In Bodybuilding Sports and Use of Ergogenic Nutritional Supplements

Year 2018, Volume , Issue 4, 378 - 384, 01.12.2018

Abstract

Introduction and objective: Bodybuilding is a power sport that usually begins with the formation of body image and is carried out in the adolescent period and can be maintained long years. In this study it was aimed to determine the use of ergogenic nutritional supplements by those who participate in bodybuilding sports and to develop recommendations for nutrition. Methods: The sample of the research was composed of 111 volunteer men engaged in body building sports who registered in nine different sports centers in Ankara and were actively performing sports for a period of 4 days and at least 1-2 hours per week. Results: The data has been evaluated using appropriate statistical methods. The mean age of participants was 27.2±8.3 years. 88.3% of them stated that they were doing this sports as amateurs. It was determined that 34.2% of the individuals had been doing this sport at least 1 year, 48.6% of them had been doing 2-5 years, 13.5% of them had been doing 6-10 years and 3.6% of them had been doing for 11 years and more. On training days, the total energy intake of participants was 2982.3±1065.1 kcal / day, protein 236.8±129.7 g/day, fat 112.1±57.4 g/day, and CHO 236.6±100.8 g/day. It was determined that 81.2% of participants applied protein based diet, 6.2% applied carbohydrate based diet. As a result of the study, ergogenic nutrition supplement usage rates were 64.0%. Conclusion: People who are doing physical activity should be informed about ergogenic nutritional supplements which can contain prohibited substances and the risk of contamination with a doping agent. Coaches and sports instructors should avoid referrals in the use of these ergogenic nutritional supplements, and the athletes should be encouraged to take professional approaches

References

  • Jones DC, Crawford JK. Adolescent boys and body image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2005;34:629-36. [CrossRef]
  • Phoenix C, Smith B. Telling a (good?) Counterstory of Aging: Natural Bodybuilding Meets The Narrative of Decline. The journals of gerontology Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 2011;66:628-39. [CrossRef]
  • Mosley PE. Bigorexia: Bodybuilding and Muscle Dysmorphia. European Eating Disorders Review 2009;17:191-8. [CrossRef]
  • Uğur E, Baysaling Ö. Herkes İçin Spor, Vücut Geliştirme, Fitness ve Formda Kalma. 2. Baskı. İstanbul: İlpress Basım ve Yayın, 2005: s.363.
  • Van Der Ploeg G, Brooks A, Withers R, Dollman J, Leaney F, Chatterton B. Body Composition Changes in Female Bodybuilders During Preparation for Competition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;55:268-77. [CrossRef]
  • Erduğan F. Rekreasyonel Vücut Geliştirmecilerin Fiziksel Fitness Düzeylerinin Amerikan Spor Hekimliği Kolejinin Sağlıkla İlgili Bildirileri Doğrultusunda Değerlendirilmesi. Trakya Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Edirne, s.55. 2014.
  • Williams MH. The Use of Nutritional Ergogenic Aids in Sports: Is it an Ethical Issue? International Journal of Sport Nutrition 1994;4:120-31.
  • Ersoy G. Egzersiz ve spor yapanlar için beslenme. Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık, 2013: s.408.
  • Molinero O, Márquez S. Use of Nutritional Supplements In Sports: Risks, Knowledge, and Behavioural-Related Factors. Nutr Hosp 2009;24:128-34.
  • Maughan R. Contamination of Dietary Supplements and Positive Drug Tests In Sport. Journal of Sports Sciences 2005;23:883-9. [CrossRef]
  • Di Luigi L. Supplements and the Endocrine System in Athletes. Clinics in Sports Medicine 2008;27:131-51. [CrossRef]
  • Ersoy G. Fiziksel Uygunluk (Fitnes) spor ve beslenme ile ilgili temel öğretiler. Ankara: Nobel Tıp, 2. Baskı, 2016. s.452.
  • Fennell D. Determinants of Supplement Usage. Preventive Medicine 2004;39:932-9. [CrossRef]
  • Millen AE, Dodd KW, Subar AF. Use of Vitamin, Mineral, Nonvitamin, and Nonmineral Supplements in The United States: The 1987, 1992, and 2000 National Health Interview Survey Results. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2004;104:942-50. [CrossRef]
  • Üst Düzey Türk Sporcuların Ergojenik Yardımcılara Yönelik Bilgi ve Yararlanma Düzeyleri. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi 2004;2:41-7. [CrossRef]
  • Smith M, Dyson R, Hale T, Hamilton M, Kelly J, Wellington P. The effects of Restricted Energy and Fluid Intake on Simulated Amateur Boxing Performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2001;11:238-47.
  • Da Rocha LP, Pereira MVL. Consumo de Suplementos Nutricionais por Praticantes de Exercícios Físicos em Academias. Rev Nutr 1998;11. [CrossRef]
  • Burns RD, Schiller MR, Merrick MA, Wolf KN. Intercollegiate Student Athlete Use of Nutritional Supplements and the Role of Athletic Trainers and Dietitians in Nutrition Counseling. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2004;104:246-9. [CrossRef]
  • TÜBER. Türkiye Beslenme Rehberi 2015. T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı Yayın No: 1031, Ankara; 2016.
  • Ronsen O, Sundgot-Borgen J, Maehlum S. Supplement Use and Nutritional Habits In Norwegian Elite Athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 1999;9:28-35.
  • Morrison LJ, Gizis F, Shorter B. Prevalent Use of Dietary Supplements Among People Who Exercise at a Commercial Gym. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2004;481-92.
  • Petroczi A, Naughton DP. The Age-Gender-Status Profile of High Performing Athletes in the UK Taking Nutritional Supplements: Lessons for the Future. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2008;5:1-8. [CrossRef]
  • Jacobson BH, Sobonya C, Ransone J. Nutrition Practices and Knowledge of College Varsity Athletes: a Follow-Up. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2001;15:63-8.
  • Conner M, Kirk SF, Cade JE, Barrett JH. Environmental Influences: Factors Influencing a Woman’s Decision to Use Dietary Supplements. The Journal of Nutrition 2003;133:78-82. [CrossRef]
  • Schwenk TL, Costley CD. When Food Becomes a Drug: Nonanabolic Nutritional Supplement Use in Athletes. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 2002;30:907-16. [CrossRef]
  • Maughan RJ, King DS, Lea T. Dietary Supplements. Journal of Sports Sciences 2004;22:95-113. [CrossRef]
  • Ciocca M. Medication and Supplement Use by Athletes. Clinics in Sports Medicine 2005;24:719-38. [CrossRef]
  • Aral K, Berdeli E, Aral CA, Altan M. Effects of bodybuilding and protein supplements in saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, and serum. Journal of Oral Science, 2017;59:121-30. [CrossRef]
  • Cengiz FP, Cemil BC, Emiroglu N, Bahali AG, Gulsel A, Onsun N. Acne located on the trunk, whey protein supplementation: Is there any association? Health Promotion Perspectives. 2017;7:106-8. [CrossRef]
  • Ostovar A, Haerinejad MJ, Farzaneh MR, Keshavarz M. Adverse effects of performance-enhancing drugs on the kidney in the male bodybuilders. Science and Sports. 2017;32: 91-8. [CrossRef]
  • Lindholm C, And KH, Ringertz BM. Pubertal Development in Elite Juvenile Gymnasts: Effects of Physical Training. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1994;73:269-73.
  • Tipton KD, Ferrando AA, Phillips SM, Doyle D, Wolfe RR. Postexercise Net Protein Synthesis in Human Muscle from Orally Administered Amino Acids. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 1999;276:628-34.

Vücut Geliştirme Sporu Yapan Erkeklerin Beslenme Alışkanlıkları ve Ergojenik Besin Destekleri Kullanma Durumları

Year 2018, Volume , Issue 4, 378 - 384, 01.12.2018

Abstract

Giriş ve amaç: Vücut geliştirme, çoğunlukla beden algısının oluşmaya başladığı ve adölesan dönemde yapılmaya başlanan ve uzun yıllar sürdürülebilen bir güç sporudur. Bu araştırmanın amacı, vücut geliştirme sporu yapanların ergojenik besin desteği kullanma durumlarını belirlemek ve beslenme açısından öneriler geliştirebilmektir. Yöntem: Ankara’daki dokuz farklı spor merkezine kayıtlı, haftada 4 gün ve en az 1-2 saat süre ile spor yapan, vücut geliştirme sporu ile uğraşan 111 erkek birey çalışmaya dâhil edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda elde edilen veriler, istatistik programlarından yararlanılarak değerlendirilmiştir. Bulgular: Araştırmaya katılanların ortalama yaşı 27.2±8.3 yıldır. Çalışmaya katılanların %88.3’ü vücut geliştirme sporunu amatör olarak yaptıklarını ifade etmişlerdir. Bireylerin %34.2’sinin en az 1 yıl, %48.6’sının 2-5 yıl, %13.5’inin 6-10 yıl ve %3.6’sının ise 11 yıl ve daha fazla süre vücut geliştirme sporu ile uğraştıkları belirlenmiştir. Ergojenik besin desteği kullananların antrenman yaptıkları günde, aldıkları toplam enerji 2982.3±1065.1 kkal/gün, protein 236.8±129.7 g/gün, yağ 112.1±57.4 g/gün, karbonhidrat 236.6±100.8 g/gün olarak bulunmuştur. Uygulanan diyetlerin %81.2’si protein ağırlıklı, %6.2’si ise karbonhidrat ağırlıklı diyetlerdir. Çalışma sonucunda ergojenik destek kullanım oranlarının %64.0 olduğu saptanmıştır. Sonuç: Spor yapan kişilerin yasaklı madde içeren ve doping ajanı ile kontaminasyon riski olan ergojenik destekler hakkında bilgilendirilmeleri gerekmektedir. Antrenörler ve spor eğitmenleri bu desteklerin kullanımında tavsiyeden kaçınmalı, sporcular profesyonel yaklaşımlar almaya teşvik edilmelidir

References

  • Jones DC, Crawford JK. Adolescent boys and body image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2005;34:629-36. [CrossRef]
  • Phoenix C, Smith B. Telling a (good?) Counterstory of Aging: Natural Bodybuilding Meets The Narrative of Decline. The journals of gerontology Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 2011;66:628-39. [CrossRef]
  • Mosley PE. Bigorexia: Bodybuilding and Muscle Dysmorphia. European Eating Disorders Review 2009;17:191-8. [CrossRef]
  • Uğur E, Baysaling Ö. Herkes İçin Spor, Vücut Geliştirme, Fitness ve Formda Kalma. 2. Baskı. İstanbul: İlpress Basım ve Yayın, 2005: s.363.
  • Van Der Ploeg G, Brooks A, Withers R, Dollman J, Leaney F, Chatterton B. Body Composition Changes in Female Bodybuilders During Preparation for Competition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;55:268-77. [CrossRef]
  • Erduğan F. Rekreasyonel Vücut Geliştirmecilerin Fiziksel Fitness Düzeylerinin Amerikan Spor Hekimliği Kolejinin Sağlıkla İlgili Bildirileri Doğrultusunda Değerlendirilmesi. Trakya Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Edirne, s.55. 2014.
  • Williams MH. The Use of Nutritional Ergogenic Aids in Sports: Is it an Ethical Issue? International Journal of Sport Nutrition 1994;4:120-31.
  • Ersoy G. Egzersiz ve spor yapanlar için beslenme. Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık, 2013: s.408.
  • Molinero O, Márquez S. Use of Nutritional Supplements In Sports: Risks, Knowledge, and Behavioural-Related Factors. Nutr Hosp 2009;24:128-34.
  • Maughan R. Contamination of Dietary Supplements and Positive Drug Tests In Sport. Journal of Sports Sciences 2005;23:883-9. [CrossRef]
  • Di Luigi L. Supplements and the Endocrine System in Athletes. Clinics in Sports Medicine 2008;27:131-51. [CrossRef]
  • Ersoy G. Fiziksel Uygunluk (Fitnes) spor ve beslenme ile ilgili temel öğretiler. Ankara: Nobel Tıp, 2. Baskı, 2016. s.452.
  • Fennell D. Determinants of Supplement Usage. Preventive Medicine 2004;39:932-9. [CrossRef]
  • Millen AE, Dodd KW, Subar AF. Use of Vitamin, Mineral, Nonvitamin, and Nonmineral Supplements in The United States: The 1987, 1992, and 2000 National Health Interview Survey Results. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2004;104:942-50. [CrossRef]
  • Üst Düzey Türk Sporcuların Ergojenik Yardımcılara Yönelik Bilgi ve Yararlanma Düzeyleri. Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi 2004;2:41-7. [CrossRef]
  • Smith M, Dyson R, Hale T, Hamilton M, Kelly J, Wellington P. The effects of Restricted Energy and Fluid Intake on Simulated Amateur Boxing Performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2001;11:238-47.
  • Da Rocha LP, Pereira MVL. Consumo de Suplementos Nutricionais por Praticantes de Exercícios Físicos em Academias. Rev Nutr 1998;11. [CrossRef]
  • Burns RD, Schiller MR, Merrick MA, Wolf KN. Intercollegiate Student Athlete Use of Nutritional Supplements and the Role of Athletic Trainers and Dietitians in Nutrition Counseling. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2004;104:246-9. [CrossRef]
  • TÜBER. Türkiye Beslenme Rehberi 2015. T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı Yayın No: 1031, Ankara; 2016.
  • Ronsen O, Sundgot-Borgen J, Maehlum S. Supplement Use and Nutritional Habits In Norwegian Elite Athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 1999;9:28-35.
  • Morrison LJ, Gizis F, Shorter B. Prevalent Use of Dietary Supplements Among People Who Exercise at a Commercial Gym. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2004;481-92.
  • Petroczi A, Naughton DP. The Age-Gender-Status Profile of High Performing Athletes in the UK Taking Nutritional Supplements: Lessons for the Future. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2008;5:1-8. [CrossRef]
  • Jacobson BH, Sobonya C, Ransone J. Nutrition Practices and Knowledge of College Varsity Athletes: a Follow-Up. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2001;15:63-8.
  • Conner M, Kirk SF, Cade JE, Barrett JH. Environmental Influences: Factors Influencing a Woman’s Decision to Use Dietary Supplements. The Journal of Nutrition 2003;133:78-82. [CrossRef]
  • Schwenk TL, Costley CD. When Food Becomes a Drug: Nonanabolic Nutritional Supplement Use in Athletes. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 2002;30:907-16. [CrossRef]
  • Maughan RJ, King DS, Lea T. Dietary Supplements. Journal of Sports Sciences 2004;22:95-113. [CrossRef]
  • Ciocca M. Medication and Supplement Use by Athletes. Clinics in Sports Medicine 2005;24:719-38. [CrossRef]
  • Aral K, Berdeli E, Aral CA, Altan M. Effects of bodybuilding and protein supplements in saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, and serum. Journal of Oral Science, 2017;59:121-30. [CrossRef]
  • Cengiz FP, Cemil BC, Emiroglu N, Bahali AG, Gulsel A, Onsun N. Acne located on the trunk, whey protein supplementation: Is there any association? Health Promotion Perspectives. 2017;7:106-8. [CrossRef]
  • Ostovar A, Haerinejad MJ, Farzaneh MR, Keshavarz M. Adverse effects of performance-enhancing drugs on the kidney in the male bodybuilders. Science and Sports. 2017;32: 91-8. [CrossRef]
  • Lindholm C, And KH, Ringertz BM. Pubertal Development in Elite Juvenile Gymnasts: Effects of Physical Training. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1994;73:269-73.
  • Tipton KD, Ferrando AA, Phillips SM, Doyle D, Wolfe RR. Postexercise Net Protein Synthesis in Human Muscle from Orally Administered Amino Acids. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 1999;276:628-34.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Yahya ÖZDOĞAN This is me
Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi, Beslenme ve Diyetetik Bölümü, Ankara, Türkiye


Ezgi KARATAŞ This is me
Ankara Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi,Beslenme ve Diyetetik Bölümü, Ankara, Türkiye


Aslı UÇAR This is me
Ankara Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi,Beslenme ve Diyetetik Bölümü, Ankara, Türkiye

Publication Date December 1, 2018
Application Date
Acceptance Date
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume , Issue 4

Cite

EndNote %0 Acıbadem Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi Vücut Geliştirme Sporu Yapan Erkeklerin Beslenme Alışkanlıkları ve Ergojenik Besin Destekleri Kullanma Durumları %A Yahya Özdoğan , Ezgi Karataş , Aslı Uçar %T Vücut Geliştirme Sporu Yapan Erkeklerin Beslenme Alışkanlıkları ve Ergojenik Besin Destekleri Kullanma Durumları %D 2018 %J Acıbadem Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi %P 1309-470X-1309-5994 %V %N 4 %R %U